normalize_string(s, normalform::Symbol)

Normalize the string s according to one of the four "normal forms" of the Unicode standard: normalform can be :NFC, :NFD, :NFKC, or :NFKD. Normal forms C (canonical composition) and D (canonical decomposition) convert different visually identical representations of the same abstract string into a single canonical form, with form C being more compact. Normal forms KC and KD additionally canonicalize "compatibility equivalents": they convert characters that are abstractly similar but visually distinct into a single canonical choice (e.g. they expand ligatures into the individual characters), with form KC being more compact.

Alternatively, finer control and additional transformations may be be obtained by calling normalize_string(s; keywords...), where any number of the following boolean keywords options (which all default to false except for compose) are specified:

  • compose=false: do not perform canonical composition
  • decompose=true: do canonical decomposition instead of canonical composition (compose=true is ignored if present)
  • compat=true: compatibility equivalents are canonicalized
  • casefold=true: perform Unicode case folding, e.g. for case-insensitive string comparison
  • newline2lf=true, newline2ls=true, or newline2ps=true: convert various newline sequences (LF, CRLF, CR, NEL) into a linefeed (LF), line-separation (LS), or paragraph-separation (PS) character, respectively
  • stripmark=true: strip diacritical marks (e.g. accents)
  • stripignore=true: strip Unicode's "default ignorable" characters (e.g. the soft hyphen or the left-to-right marker)
  • stripcc=true: strip control characters; horizontal tabs and form feeds are converted to spaces; newlines are also converted to spaces unless a newline-conversion flag was specified
  • rejectna=true: throw an error if unassigned code points are found
  • stable=true: enforce Unicode Versioning Stability

For example, NFKC corresponds to the options compose=true, compat=true, stable=true.


See Also

ascii, base64decode, Base64DecodePipe, base64encode, Base64EncodePipe, bin, bits, bytestring, charwidth, chomp, chop, chr2ind, contains, endswith, escape_string, graphemes, ind2chr, iscntrl, istext, isupper, isvalid, join, lcfirst, lowercase, lpad, lstrip, normalize_string, num2hex, parseip, randstring, readuntil, replace, repr, rpad, rsplit, rstrip, search, searchindex, split, startswith, string, stringmime, strip, strwidth, summary, takebuf_string, ucfirst, unescape_string, uppercase, utf16, utf32, utf8, wstring,

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